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Light plays a crucial role in regulating many of the body's internal processes, including the circadian rhythm that controls the sleep-wake cycle.1 Blue light is found naturally in sunlight and signals to the brain that we should be awake, and during the day can help to boost our attention, reaction times and overall mood.2 The blue light found in sunlight peaks at midday and then starts to decline until darkness, and like all living things we have evolved to respond to the natural cues of light and dark.
We are, however, no longer only exposed to blue light via sunlight. Modern living means we have artificial light on demand, and recently residential lighting has changed from incandescent to light emitting diodes (LEDs), which, although appearing white in colour, actually emit high levels of blue light.1 What's more, digital device usage has dramatically increased, with many people being exposed to blue light from computers, televisions, smartphones and tablets from the moment they wake up right until they go to sleep.1, 3
Our increasingly 24/7 lifestyle also has an impact on our natural circadian rhythm. Late-night usage of electronics can delay the onset of sleep, altering sleep quality and cognitive performance the following day.4 What's more, there is research to support the hypothesis that circadian rhythm disruption, such as seen in night shift work, adversely impacts mood and can lead to disorders such as depression, cognitive dysfunction and increased risk of obesity.1, 5, 6, 7
Blue light is the shortest and most energetic wavelength of all visible light, and is able to penetrate easily through the cornea and lens of the eye to reach the retina: the part of the eye responsible for receiving light and for visual recognition.1 Over time, increased blue light exposure can cause lasting damage to the light-sensitive cells found in the retina, and can lead to changes including macular degeneration, cataracts and dry eye.8
Research has shown that lutein and zeaxanthin can help protect against the harmful effects of blue light, as out of the 600 plant pigments, or carotenoids found in nature, lutein and zeaxanthin are the only two that are deposited in high quantities in an area of the retina called the macula.9, 10
Here, their antioxidant properties can protect against the impact of unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals.11 Blue light exposure can promote the production of free radicals, with long-term exposure increasing the risk of damage to the macula cells and causing a progressive loss of visual function, such as that seen in age-related macular degeneration.12
The antioxidant properties of lutein and zeaxanthin have also been shown to help protect against cataract formation. Cataracts occur when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy or less clear, which is primarily caused through oxidative stress - an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants.10 Lutein and zeaxanthin are yellow-orange pigments that help to filter out blue light, which reduces the amount that reaches the retina; so benefitting the health of the eye.13
This blue light-filtering ability is also thought to benefit sleep, as blocking blue light allows for the production and release of melatonin (our sleep hormone). A recent study supports this theory, as it concluded that after supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin, participants' overall sleep quality improved, and they experienced less sleep disturbances and resulting daytime dysfunction.14
Zeaxanthin can be made by the body from lutein, but it cannot make lutein itself. This is why it's important to include sources of these nutrients in your diet to help keep your levels up.10 The best sources include dark green leafy vegetables such as kale, spinach, collard greens and Swiss chard, but can also be found in yellow-orange foods including sweetcorn, carrots, yellow and orange peppers, squash, Cantaloupe melon and egg yolks.15
We should aim to consume around 10mg every day, in order to experience the beneficial effects of the nutrients, but the Macular Disease Society advises that an average Western diet provides just 3mg per day.16 Taking a daily supplement to boost our levels may be necessary, and has been shown to be an effective way to restore these important nutrients.9
Other practical suggestions to reduce blue light exposure include opting for warmer yellowish-white light bulbs in the workplace and at home, limiting digital device usage generally, as well as reducing screen brightness and use of apps late at night.17 Blue light-blocking glasses may also help to protect the retina, and their use at night may help to lessen circadian rhythm disruption.
Sarah Dumont-Gale DipION mBANT CNHC graduated with distinction in Nutritional Therapy from the Institute for Optimum Nutrition in 2018. She is a member of BANT (British Association for Nutrition and Lifestyle Medicine) and is registered with the CNHC (Complementary and Natural Healthcare Council).
Find out more about Sarah Dumont-Gale.
Nothing beats a healthy, balanced diet to provide all the nutrients we need. But when this isn’t possible, supplements can help. This article isn’t intended to replace medical advice. Please consult your healthcare professional before trying supplements or herbal medicines.
1Hatori, M., Gronfier, C., Van Gelder, R.N., Bernstein, P.S., Carreras, J., Panda, S., Marks, F., Sliney, D., Hunt, C.E., Hirota, T. and Furukawa, T.(2017). Global rise of potential health hazards caused by blue light-induced circadian disruption in modern aging societies, Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
2Gomes, C.C. and Preto, S.(2015). Direct measurements of smartphone screen-time: relationships with demographics and sleep Procedia Manufacturing
3Christensen, M.A., Bettencourt, L., Kaye, L., Moturu, S.T., Nguyen, K.T., Olgin, J.E., Pletcher, M.J. and Marcus, G.M..(2016). Blue light: A blessing or a curse? PloS one
4Christensen, M.A., Bettencourt, L., Kaye, L., Moturu, S.T., Nguyen, K.T., Olgin, J.E., Pletcher, M.J. and Marcus, G.M.(2016). Direct measurements of smartphone screen-time: relationships with demographics and sleep PloS one
5Hysing, M., Pallesen, S., Stormark, K.M., Jakobsen, R., Lundervold, A.J. and Sivertsen, B.(2015). Sleep and use of electronic devices in adolescence: results from a large population-based study. BMJ open
6Kecklund, G. and Axelsson, J., Lundervold, A.J. and Sivertsen, B.(2016). Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep BMJ
7Lazzerini Ospri, L., Prusky, G. and Hattar, S.(2017). Mood, the circadian system, and melanopsin retinal ganglion cells Annual review of neuroscience
8Zhao, Z.C., Zhou, Y., Tan, G. and Li, J.(2018). Research progress about the effect and prevention of blue light on eyes International journal of ophthalmology
9Zhao, Z.C., Zhou, Y., Tan, G. and Li, J.(2018). Research progress about the effect and prevention of blue light on eyes International journal of ophthalmology
10Scripsema, N.K., Hu, D.N. and Rosen, R.B.(2015). Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin in the clinical management of eye disease International journal of ophthalmology
11Xue, C., Rosen, R., Jordan, A. and Hu, D.N.(2015). Management of ocular diseases using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: what have we learned from experimental animal studies? International journal of ophthalmology
12Ratnayake, K., Payton, J.L., Lakmal, O.H. and Karunarathne, A.(2018). Blue light excited retinal intercepts cellular signaling. Scientific reports
13Jia, Y.P., Sun, L., Yu, H.S., Liang, L.P., Li, W., Ding, H., Song, X.B. and Zhang, L.J.(2017). The pharmacological effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on visual disorders and cognition diseases. Molecules
14Culver., M.F., Bowman., J. and Juturu., V.(2018). Lutein and zeaxanthin isomers effect on sleep quality: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Biomedical journal of scientific and technical research
15Abdel-Aal, E.S., Akhtar, H., Zaheer, K. and Ali, R.(2013). Dietary sources of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids and their role in eye health. Nutrients
16Macular Society(2017). Nutrition and eye health Macular Society
17Gringras, P., Middleton, B., Skene, D.J. and Revell, V.L.(2015). Bigger, brighter, bluer-better? Current light-emitting devices - adverse sleep properties and preventative strategies. Frontiers in public health