Phytochemicals: Also known as phytonutrients. Active compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and other plants, include beta carotene, lycopene, and resveratrol.
Phytoestrogen: A naturally occurring plant oestrogen found in legumes that mimics the effects of oestrogen hormones in the body.
Placebo: A harmless, fake or inactive treatment that may still offer relief despite being inactive. In clinical trials, the effectiveness of a new drug is usually tested against a placebo.
Plant compounds: The collective term given to phytosterols, lipids, amino acids and other substances naturally found in plants.
Plaque: 1) A sticky layer of bacteria that forms on the surface of a tooth.
2) A fatty deposit in or on the walls of an artery caused by LDL cholesterol and excess lipid production.
Prenatal supplements: Specially formulated multivitamins to be taken before and during pregnancy to ensure both mother and child get enough essential micronutrients. Prenatal supplements generally contain more folic acid, iron, and calcium than standard adult supplements.
Probiotic: Live microorganisms, including bacteria and yeasts, that benefit health. Strains of ‘good’ bacteria (such as Lactobacillus) can be found in fermented foods, such as yoghurt, and supplements, and help maintain a neutral gut microflora.
Protein: One of the three major nutrients (macronutrients, alongside carbohydrates and fats). Protein is used by the body to build and repair tissue. It is mainly found in milk, meat and eggs, but can also be obtained from nuts and seed, some grains, and other plant sources.